Two-Nation Theory – Pakistan’s foundation

Written by: M Rashid Tabassum

Pakistan was got in the name of Allah. It is the second ideological Islamic state in the history of the world after the state of Madina. Two-Nation Theory is the foundation of Pakistan. It is also called Pakistan’s ideology. According to theory, Muslims and Hindus are two separate nations. Both nations lived together for hundreds of years. But they did not adopt each other cultures and civilizations. Both have remained as their distinct social systems, cultures and civilization. Al-Beruni wrote in his famous book “Kitab-ul-Hind” about both nations: “The two societies, Hindus and Muslims, like two streams have sometimes touched but never merged, each following its separate course.”

Qutub-uddin Aibak, the slave of Shahab-ud-din Ghouri, laid the foundation of first Islamic State in Subcontinent in 1206. Muslims ruled on the area till 1857. During this period, Muslims’ behaviour with their public was ideal. On the contrary, Hindus did not accept Muslims by heart and they tried to damage Muslim. In fact, Hindus are the narrow and bigoted nation. After 1857, When Britishers became the dominant power of Subcontinent; Hindus cooperated with them to kill Muslims.




Britishers made many plans to weaken Muslims politically, religiously, socially and economically. One of them was the formation of All India National Congress. The Congress was founded in 1885 by Allan Octavian Hume, a retired British Officer. It was mainly a Hindu body. It always benefited the Hindus. In-fact, foundation of congress was on Muslims’ enmity. For a specified time, Congress entangled the Muslims in the slogan of nationalism (one nation one country). When British imposed new reforms under the act of 1935, Muslims’ enmity face of Congress appeared. The first provisional election was held in 1937. Congress formed government in seven out of eleven provinces. The attitude of Congress Government was very cruel and brutal with Muslims, during his tenure. It opened the eyes of Muslims. This attitude was also a proof that Hindus are separate nation. After taking charge, Congress declared Hindi as national language and Banday Matram was adopted as the national anthem. Muslim children were forced to sing it. Congress Government took every possible attempt to weaken the economy of Muslims. The doors of government offices were closed for Muslims. When Congress resigned, Muslims celebrated December 22, 1939 as a day of deliverance and thanksgiving.

In 1937, Quaid e Azam chaired the meeting of All India Muslim League (AIML) in Lukhnow. He advised Muslims to organize, establish solidarity and complete unity. He also clarified that Muslims and Hindus are two nations. In fact, Muslims became reality, truth and power based on two nation theory. Muslims called separate Islamic state as their goal and this goal was famous as demand of Pakistan (Mutalba Pakistan).

In 1940, 27th annual meeting of AIML was held in Lahore, between 22 – 24 March. Quaid e Azam, in his historical speech, declared that the Muslims were “a nation by any definition”. He explained the difference between Hindus and Muslims in these words: “The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs, and literature. They neither inter-marry, nor inter-dine together. Their aspects on life are different.” Lahore resolution was adopted on 24th of March. Resolution states “…the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute ‘Independent States’ in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign.”




Hindu Press and congress leaders called it impossible and enmity & treachery with mother land. Hindus did not know that resolution will become reality after 7 years. Consequently, Pakistan formed despite of opposition, enmity and prejudice of Hindus and Britisher.

Rising more, two-nation theory is still alive. Professor in South Asian Studies and Anthropology at Stanford University Dr Thomas Hansen described the situation of Indian Muslims and said, “India has not been taking care of its Muslim population after independence. The Muslims in India are not even enjoying the status given to Dalits in the country’s constitution.”

Concluding more, Pakistan came into existence on the basis of Kalma Tayyaba. All the Muslims can only be interrelated due to this Kalma Tayyaba. Now, situation of law and order in Pakistan is critical. It is need to reanimate the spirit of struggle movement of Pakistan, to maintain the law and order in the country. As well as, Polito-Religious organizations and other people should play their role and save the nations’ future from external hazards and conspiracies.

Note: The writer is freelanced columnist based in Lahore

Email: rashid.vu@gmail.com




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