Two-nation Theory – Pakistan’s base

Written by: M Rashid Tabassum

Ideology is a complete set of standard beliefs, conscious and unconscious ideas of an individual, group or society. Pakistan is the country with foundations based on a theory called Two-nation theory or Pakistan’s ideology. After a long period of movement, Pakistan was got on such a principle that Muslims are a separate nation and their code of conduct, culture, religion and life pattern each and every thing is different from other religions. Two-nation theory, means Muslims and Hindus are distinct nations. They have no similarities in any matter of life. They lived together for centuries but did not accept each other’s cultures and life style.

In 1206, the foundation of first Islamic State in Subcontinent was laid by Qutub-uddin Aibak, the slave of Shahab-ud-din Ghouri. Muslims ruled at the region till 1857. During the ruling age, Muslim rulers’ behavior with other nations was ideal, but Hindus did not accept Muslims by heart. When Britain captured the Subcontinent, Hindus took conspiracies against Muslims and cooperated with British people. Moreover, Urdu was the common language during Muslims’ rule. In 1867, some Hindus started linguistic movement, demanded to replace Urdu with Hindi and the Persian script with the Deva Nagri script. The reason was only Muslims’ enmity because Urdu was written in Persian script which was similar to script of Quranic language.

British made every plan which could be used to weaken Muslims politically, religiously, socially and economically. Under this plan, All India National Congress (AINC) was founded in 1885 by Allan Octavian Hume, a retired British Officer. Formation of AINC was on Muslims’ enmity and its aim to benefit Hindus and damage Muslims. For a long time, Congress interweaved the Muslims in nationalism’s slogan (one nation one country).

On the other hand, Bengal was the biggest province that time extending with a population of 80 million. Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon made the Partition of Bengal on October 16, 1905. Muslims welcomed the partition of Bengal but Hindus did not accept it and decision was reversed later.

These two events disappointed the Muslims and they decided to organize as separate community. All India Muslim League (AIML) was founded at Dakha on December 30, 1906, during the annual meeting of Muhammadan Educational Conference. The main aim was to protect the rights of Muslims.

Furthermore, knowing the endeavors of Hindus and Britishers Allama Muhammad Iqbal gave a theory of separate Muslim state in the subcontinent. On 29th December 1930, during the 25th annual session of AIML at Allahabad, he said, “I am not despaired of Islam as a living force. I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single State.”

In 1937, the first provisional election was held under new reforms of 1935 act. Congress made government in seven out of eleven provinces. During its tenure, Congress Government took steps to weaken Muslims. It declared Hindi as national language and Banday Mataram was adopted as the national anthem. It closed the doors of Government offices for Muslims. In this situation, Quaid e Azam advised the Muslims to organize, establish solidarity and complete unity. Upon the resignation of Congress, Muslims celebrated December 22, 1939 as a day of deliverance and thanksgiving.

Writing more, 3 days 27th annual meeting of AIML was held in Lahore on 22nd March 1940. Quaid e Azam called the Muslims “a nation by any definition”. He said, “The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs, and literature. They neither inter-marry, nor inter-dine together. Their aspects on life are different.” During the meeting, Lahore resolution was passed on 24th of March which was later called as Pakistan resolution. According to the resolution “…the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute ‘Independent States’.”

Hindus and Congress opposed the resolution but they did not know that resolution will become reality after 7 years. By the grace of Allah, Pakistan was formed on 14th August 1947 despite of all the opposition, enmity.

Rising more, two-nation theory is still alive. In 1971, after the fall of Dhaka, Indian PM of that time Indira Gandhi said: “We have drowned the two-nation theory in the Bay of Bengal.” Till now, Indian Muslims are suffering tyranny of Hindus. Thousands of Muslims have been massacred after the partition of Indo-Pak. Even Muslims were worst tortured over selling or eating Cow meat.

Concluding more, Pakistan was got in the name of Allah. Today, enemies of Islam and Pakistan want to destabilize Pakistan. It is need of the hour to reanimate the spirit of Pakistan’s movement, to promote the environment of peace and security in the country. As well as, Polito-Religious organizations and whole nation should play their role to save the nations’ future from external hazards and plots.

Note: The writer is freelanced columnist based in Lahore



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